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Dairy farming, primarily concerned with milk production, functions on a co-operative basis and has more than a million members. Gujarat is the largest producer of milk in India.

The Amul milk co-operative federation is well known all over India, and it is Asia's biggest dairy. As per the results of livestock census , there were In the estimates of the survey of major livestock products, during the year —03, Gujarat produced 6.

Gujarat also contributes inputs to the textiles, oil, and soap industries, amongst others. The adoption of cooperatives in Gujarat is widely attributed to much of the success in the agricultural sector, particularly sugar and dairy cooperatives.

Cooperative farming has been a component of India's strategy for agricultural development since Whilst the success of these was mixed throughout the country, their positive impact on the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat have been the most significant.

In alone, the two states had more registered co-operatives than any other region in the country. Out of these, the agricultural cooperatives have received much attention.

Many have focused on subsidies and credit to farmers and rather than collective gathering, they have focused on facilitating collective processing and marketing of produce.

However, whilst they have led to increased productivity, their effect on equity in the region has been questioned, because membership in agricultural co-operatives has tended to favour landowners whilst limiting the entry of landless agricultural labourers.

Amul Was formed as a dairy cooperative in , [] in the city of Anand, Gujarat. GCMMF , is jointly owned by around 2.

Amul has been seen as one of the best examples of cooperative achievement and success in a developing economy and the Amul pattern of growth has been taken as a model for rural development, particularly in the agricultural sector of developing economies.

The company stirred the White Revolution of India also known as Operation Flood , the world's biggest dairy development program, and made the milk-deficient nation of India the largest milk producer in the world, in As a result, Gujarat has faced problems with groundwater depletion, especially after demand for water went up in the s.

As access to electricity in rural areas increased, submersible electric pumps became more popular in the s and s. However, the Gujarat Electricity Board switched to flat tariff rates linked to the horsepower of pumps, which increased tubewell irrigation again and decreased the use of electric pumps.

By the s, groundwater abstraction rates exceeded groundwater recharge rate in many districts, whilst only Groundwater maintenance and preventing unnecessary loss of the available water supplies is now an issue faced by the state.

However, its impact on communities who were displaced is still a contested issue. Recently, in , Gujarat began an experiment to reduce water loss due to evaporation in canals and to increase sustainability in the area by constructing solar panels over the canals.

One megawatt MW solar power project set up at Chandrasan, Gujarat uses solar panels fixed over a metre stretch of an irrigation canal. Unlike many solar power projects, this one does not take up large amounts of land since the panels are constructed over the canals, and not on additional land.

This results in lower upfront costs since land does not need to be acquired, cleared or modified to set up the panels. The Government of Gujarat, to improve soil management and introduce farmers to new technology, started on a project which involved giving every farmer a Soil Health Card.

This acts like a ration card, providing permanent identification for the status of cultivated land, as well as farmers' names, account numbers, survey numbers, soil fertility status and general fertiliser dose.

Assistance and advice for this project was given by local agricultural universities and crop and soil-specific data was added to the database.

This allows the soil test data to be interpreted and recommendations or adjustments made in terms of fertiliser requirements, which are also added to the database.

Gujarat is home for the Gujarati people. Gujarat was also the home of Mahatma Gandhi , a worldwide figure known for his non-violent struggle against British rule, and Vallabhbhai Patel , a founding father of the Republic of India.

Gujarati literature 's history may be traced to AD. Saraswatichandra is a landmark novel by Govardhanram Tripathi. A notable contribution to Gujarati language literature came from the Swaminarayan paramhanso, like Bramhanand, Premanand, with prose like Vachanamrut and poetry in the form of bhajans.

Gujarati theatre owes a lot to Bhavai. Bhavai is a folk musical performance of stage plays. Dayro gathering involves singing and conversation reflecting on human nature.

Gujarati food is primarily vegetarian. The typical Gujarati thali consists of rotli or bhakhari or thepala or rotlo , dal or kadhi , khichdi , Bhat and shak.

Athanu Indian pickle and chhundo are used as condiments. The four major regions of Gujarat all bring their own styles to Gujarati food.

Many Gujarati dishes are distinctively sweet, salty, and spicy at the same time. In Saurashtra region , chhash buttermilk is believed to be a must-have in their daily food.

The Gujarati film industry dates back to , when the first Gujarati film, Narsinh Mehta , was released. The industry is revived in recent times.

The film industry has produced more than one thousand films since its inception. Gujarati folk music, known as Sugam Sangeet , is a hereditary profession of the Barot , Gadhvi and Charan communities.

The omnipresent instruments in Gujarati folk music include wind instruments, such as turi , bungal , and pava , string instruments , such as the ravan hattho , ektaro , and jantar and percussion instruments, such as the manjira and zanz pot drum.

Garba during Navaratri in Ahmedabad. Navratri Garba at Ambaji temple. The folk traditions of Gujarat include bhavai and raas - garba.

Bhavai is a folk theatre; it is partly entertainment and partly ritual, and is dedicated to Amba. The raas-garba is a folk dance done as a celebration of Navratri by Gujarati people.

The folk costume of this dance is chaniya choli for women and kedia for men. Different styles and steps of garba include dodhiyu , simple five, simple seven, popatiyu , trikoniya hand movement which forms an imagery triangle , lehree , tran taali , butterfly, hudo , two claps and many more Sheri garba is one of the oldest form of garba where all the ladies wear red patola sari and sing along while dancing.

It is a very graceful form of garba. In Gujarat, from December through to Makar Sankranti , people start enjoying kite flying. Undhiyu , a special dish made of various vegetables, is a must-have of Gujarati people on Makar Sankranti.

Surat is especially well known for the strong string which is made by applying glass powder on the row thread to provide it a cutting edge.

Due to close proximity to the Arabian Sea, Gujarat has developed a mercantile ethos which maintained a cultural tradition of seafaring , long-distance trade, and overseas contacts with the outside world since ancient times, and the diffusion of culture through Gujarati diaspora was a logical outcome of such a tradition.

During the pre-modern period, various European sources have observed that these merchants formed diaspora communities outside of Gujarat, and in many parts of the world, such as the Persian Gulf , Middle East, Horn of Africa , Hong Kong, Indonesia , and Philippines.

This tradition was followed by other Gujaratis. Many Indians had migrated to Indonesia and the Philippines , most of them being Gujaratis.

King Aji Saka, who is said to have come to Java in Indonesia in year 1 of the Saka calendar, is believed by some to be a king of Gujarat.

In the early s, palaeontologists found dinosaur egg hatcheries and fossils of at least 13 species in Balasinor. The most important find was that of a carnivorous abelisaurid named Rajasurus narmadensis which lived in the Late Cretaceous period.

Gujarat has four national parks and 21 sanctuaries. It is the only home of Asiatic lions and outside Africa , is the only present natural habitat of lions.

Apart from lions, Indian leopards are also found in state. They are spread across the large plains of Saurashtra and the mountains of South Gujarat.

In February , a Bengal tiger claimed to be from Ratapani in Madhya Pradesh was spotted in the area of Lunavada in Mahisagar district , in the eastern part of the state, [] [] before being found dead later that month, likely from starvation.

Gujarat's natural environment includes the Great Rann of Kutch and the hills of Saputara , and it is the sole home of pure Asiatic lions in the world.

Many structures in the state are built in this fashion. Amitabh Bachchan is currently the brand ambassador of Gujarat Tourism.

The Kirti Mandir, Porbandar , Sabarmati Ashram , and Kaba Gandhi No Delo are museums related to Mahatma Gandhi , the former being the place of his birth and the latter two where he lived in his lifetime.

Kaba Gandhi No Delo in Rajkot exhibits part of a rare collection of photographs relating to the life of Mahatma Gandhi. Sabarmati Ashram is the place where Gandhi initiated the Dandi March.

On 12 March he vowed that he would not return to the Ashram until India won independence. The Calico Museum of Textiles is managed by the Sarabhai Foundation and is one of the most popular tourist spots in Ahmedabad.

The Lakhota Museum at Jamnagar is a palace transformed into museum, which was residence of the Jadeja Rajputs. The collection of the museum includes artefacts spanning from 9th to 18th centuries, pottery from medieval villages nearby and the skeleton of a whale.

In October , the world's tallest statue commemorating the independence leader Sardar Patel was unveiled. At metres tall the Statue of Unity is the newest tourist attraction with over visitors every day.

Religious sites play a major part in the tourism of Gujarat. Somnath is the first amongst twelve Jyotirlingas , and is mentioned in the Rigveda.

The Dwarakadheesh Temple and Dakor ji are holy pilgrimage sites with temples dedicated to Lord Krishna.

The Palitana temples of Jainism on Mount Shatrunjaya , Palitana are considered the holiest of all pilgrimage places by the Svetambara and Digambara Jain community.

The Modhra Dance Festival is a festival for classical dance, arranged by the Government of Gujarat 's Cultural Department, to promote tourism in state and to keep traditions and culture alive.

The Ambaji Fair is held in the Hindu month of Bhadrapad around August—September at Ambaji, during a time which is particularly suitable for farmers, when the busy monsoon season is about to end.

The walk from the bus station to the temple is less than one kilometre, under a roofed walkway. The Bhadrapad fair is held in the centre of the Ambaji village just outside the temple premises.

The village is visited by the largest number of sanghas pilgrim groups during the fair. Many of them go there on foot, which is particularly enriching as it happens immediately after the monsoon, when the landscape is rich with greenery, streams are full of sparkling water and the air is fresh.

About 1. Not only Hindus, but some devout Jains and Parsis also attend the functions, whilst some Muslims attend the fair for trade.

The Tarnetar Fair is held during the first week of Bhadrapad , September—October according to Gregorian calendar , and mostly serves as a place to find a suitable bride for tribal people from Gujarat.

The region is believed to be the place where Arjuna took up the difficult task of piercing the eye of a fish, rotating at the end of a pole, by looking at its reflection in the pond water, to marry Draupadi.

The Government of Gujarat has banned alcohol since Somnath Temple , Veraval. Dwarkadhish Temple , Dwarka. Akshardham Gandhinagar.

Laxmi Vilas Palace , Vadodra. Vijay Vilas Palace , Mandvi , Kutch. Mahabat Maqbara , Junagadh. Vasai Jain Temple , Kutch. Mandvi Beach, Kutch. Two more airports Ankleshwar , Rajkot are under construction.

There are three disused airports situated at Deesa , Mandvi and Mehsana ; the last serving as a flying school. Vadodara Railway Station is the busiest railway station in Gujarat and the fourth busiest railway station in India.

Indian Railways is planning Delhi—Mumbai dedicated rail freight route passing through the state.

The It is expected to complete by December The construction started on 14 March Kandla Port is one of the largest ports serving Western India.

The state also has Ro-Ro ferry service. It is a public transport corporation providing bus services and public transit within Gujarat and to the other states in India.

Apart from this, the GSRTC provides special bus services for festivals, industrial zones, schools, colleges and pilgrim places also buses are given on contract basis to the public for certain special occasions.

Auto rickshaws are common mode of transport in Gujarat. The Government of Gujarat is promoting bicycles to reduce pollution by the way of initiative taken by free cycle rides for commuters..

Gujarat has 13 state universities and four agricultural universities. IRMA is a unique institution in the sense that it provides professional education to train managers for rural management.

It is the only one of its kind in all Asia. The National Institute of Design NID in Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar is internationally acclaimed as one of the foremost multi-disciplinary institutions in the field of design education and research.

In the emerging area of legal education, a premier institution Gujarat National Law University was founded in the capital city Gandhinagar which started imparting education from the year and is ranked in top institutions in the country.

Originally known as the Baroda College of Science established , it became a university in after the independence of the country and later renamed after its benefactor Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III, the former ruler of Baroda State.

Vikram Sarabhai , a renowned scientist, industrialist, and visionary Gujarati, played an important role in it.

He also founded Physical Research Laboratory , a research institute encompasses Astrophysics, Solar System, and cosmic radiation.

He also envisioned Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad , one of the internationally reputed management research institute that is located in Gujarat's commercial capital Ahmedabad and is the top ranked management institutes in the country.

It was inaugurated by Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru , the first Prime Minister of India on 10 April , with a view to carry out research on marine salt, and salt from inland lakes and sub-soil brine.

It is working on reverse osmosis , electro membrane process, salt and marine chemicals, analytical science, marine biotechnology, and other related fields.

Gujarat Science City , [] is a government initiative to draw more students towards education in science, which hosts India's first IMAX 3D theatre, an energy park, a hall of science, an amphitheatre , and dancing musical fountains amongst others.

School of Business Management is ranked sixth in financial management. Shanti Business School in Ahmedabad is a business school offering post graduate diploma in management through corporate citizenship initiative.

ISR campus is at Raisan, Gandhinagar, in a sprawling and picturesque [ clarification needed ] area on the banks of Sabarmati river.

Aims and objectives include assigning optimum seismic factors for buildings in different regions and long-term assessment of potential.

The ISR is the only institute in India fully dedicated to seismological research and is planned to be developed into a premier international institute in few years time.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. State in western India. This article is about the state in India. For the city in Pakistan, see Gujrat City.

For other uses, see Gujrat. State in India. Main article: History of Gujarat. Indus Valley Civilisation.

Dholavira , one of the largest cities of Indus Valley Civilisation, with stepwell steps to reach the water level in artificially constructed reservoirs.

Archaeological remains of washroom drainage system at Lothal. It is one of the finest examples of stepwell architecture of Gujarat. Rani ki vav 11th century.

Taranga Jain Temple constructed by Kumarapala — The Mughal Emperor Akbar triumphantly enters Surat. Princely states of Gujarat in Gujarat in Bombay state.

Main article: Geography of Gujarat. See also: Climate of Gujarat and List of rivers of Gujarat. Physical map of Gujarat. Sardar Sarovar Project , Gujarat, partially completed up to E.

Main article: Rann of Kutch. Mount Karo, Kutch. White Rann of Kutch. Cracked earth in the Rann of Kutch. Main article: Gujarati people. Islam 9.

Jainism 0. Christianity 0. Sikhism 0. Buddhism 0. Others 0. Not stated 0. Palitana temples. Hindi 6.

Marathi 1. Kutchi 1. Others 5. See also: Chief Ministers of Gujarat. Largest cities or towns in Gujarat As of the Census. Main article: Economy of Gujarat.

This section may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. You can help. The talk page may contain suggestions. October Main article: Culture of Gujarat.

Main article: Gujarati literature. Main article: Gujarati cuisine. Main article: Gujarati cinema. Main article: Music of Gujarat.

Main article: List of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries of Gujarat, India. Main article: Tourism in Gujarat. Kirti Toran, Vadnagar. Jama Mosque, Champaner.

Lakhota Museum in Jamnagar. Sun Temple, Modhera. Wankaner palace, Wankaner. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport.

Surat Airport. Main article: List of airports in Gujarat. Main pages: Railway stations in Gujarat and Indian Railways.

Bus terminal in Vadodara. Ahmedabad BRTS. Main article: Education in Gujarat. See also: List of institutions of higher education in Gujarat.

Notable people of Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Jamsetji Tata. Vikram Sarabhai. See also: List of people from Gujarat. India portal.

Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original PDF on 8 July Retrieved 6 November LIT Verlag Münster. Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 13 June Global Data Lab.

Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 25 September Planning Commission, Government of India.

Archived from the original PDF on 27 January Retrieved 3 October The Times of India. Archived from the original on 27 December Retrieved 14 July Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 12 November Nri Gujarati News.

Archived from the original on 1 December Archived from the original on 25 January Retrieved 24 January Ministry of Labour and Employment.

Retrieved 3 May M Saraswathy 5 February Retrieved 4 March Pradeep Udhas. Retrieved 4 July Tomar, Anita; Oza, Dr. Heena September Abhinav Publication.

Retrieved 5 July Anthropological Survey of India. Popular Prakashan. Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 21 January The State took its name from the Gujara, the land of the Gujjars , who ruled the area during the s and s.

Archived from the original on 19 October Retrieved 27 October Gujarat draws its name from the Gurjara supposedly a subtribe of the Huns , who ruled the area during the 8th and 9th centuries CE.

Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. Archived from the original PDF on 20 July Retrieved 18 November Archived from the original on 27 October Archived from the original on 26 May Retrieved 16 July Rao Archaeological Survey of India.

James, Tr. James, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Gujuras of Sindh. Circa AD Archived from the original on 11 August Retrieved 15 July Boulder, Colo.

Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 22 December Schoff , The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century digitalized , New York, archived from the original on 24 February , retrieved 1 October , As a sign of these places to those approaching from the sea there are serpents, very large and black; for at the other places on this coast and around Barygaza, they are smaller, and in color bright green, running into gold Now the whole country of India has very many rivers, and very great ebb and flow of the tides; increasing at the new moon, and at the full moon for three days, and falling off during the intervening days of the moon.

But about Barygaza it is much greater, so that the bottom is suddenly seen, and now parts of the dry land are sea, and now it is dry where ships were sailing just before; and the rivers, under the inrush of the flood tide, when the whole force of the sea is directed against them, are driven upwards more strongly against their natural current, for many stadia.

Retrieved 19 October The Syrian troops became increasingly reluctant to serve on the ill-omened Indian front, which seemed, after so many failures, to be well on its way to becoming the worst front.

Historical and cultural chronology of Gujarat, Volume 1. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Gajrani p. Al- Hind: The slave kings and the Islamic conquest.

Retrieved 17 May Asian Educational Services. Textile History. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Leiden: Brill. Spencer Trimingham, John O.

New York: Columbia University Press. Princeton University Press, Ahmedabad: From Royal city to Megacity. Penguin UK, Retrieved 18 February Muslim education and learning in Gujarat, — Socio Religious Outlook of Abul Fazl.

Lahore Pakistan: Vanguard Books. The Ottoman Age of Exploration. Oxford University Press. Nevertheless, there were indeed people in India, specifically in Gujarat, who by about knew the Ottomans as the primary Ghazi sultans of western domains of the abode of Islam, and had tried to elevate their own standing by posing as comrade ghazis fighting irreligion in the east.

New Delhi: Northern Book Centre. Gujarati merchants had very long-standing relations with the Persian Gulf and Red Sea regions. Aden, Ormuz, and Mecca were frequently visited by them.

They took gold, quicksilver, vermilion, copper, rose-water, camlets, scarlet-in-grain, coloured woollen cloth, glass beads and weapons which were brought by merchants from Cairo to Aden.

The above mentioned items were collected by merchants from Italy, Greece, and Damascus. Horses from various parts of Arabia and Persia, especially from Ormuz, were brought by the Gujarati merchants to India.

The Cambridge History of the British Empire. CUP Archive. Retrieved 24 February The annual pilgrimages of Indian Muslim to Mecca, whose route lay through Gujarat which was called the Gate of Mecca had been for some years interrupted by the domination of the Arabian Sea by the Portuguese and also by the disorder prevailing in Gujarat.

The graves of Tarim genealogy and mobility across the Indian Ocean. Berkeley: University of California Press. From the other direction, the enhanced security of the Hejaz provided not only profits for Gujarati merchants but succor for Gujarat's Muslim sultans.

In times of insecurity, Gujarati sultans would send their families and treasures to the Hejaz for safekeeping Archived from the original on 3 October Retrieved 30 September A Textbook of Medieval Indian History.

Primus Books. Stanford, Calif. Godinho estimated that Surat's population was more than , , with people from all over the world residing in the city or frequenting it for business.

Hinduism and modernity. Oxford: Blackwell. Surat was then the place of embarkation of pilgrims to Mecca; known as Bab al-Makkah or the Gate of Mecca, it was almost a sacred place for the Muslims of India.

More to the point it was the main city for foreign imports, where many merchants had their bases, and all the European trading companies were established.

Its population was more than , For a pious emperor, Surat had more than economic and political importance; it was the port from which the hajj pilgrimage ships left Mughal India for the Red Sea.

Princeton University Press. The adventures of Ibn Battuta, a Muslim traveler of the fourteenth century. Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 1 October Historians have differed over the identity of the sailor, calling him a Christian, a Muslim and a Gujarati.

According to another account, he was the famous Arab navigator Ibn Majid. Some historians suggest Majid could not have been near the vicinity at the time.

German author Justus says it was Malam who accompanied Vasco Italian researcher Sinthia Salvadori too has concluded that it was Malam who showed Gama the way to India.

Salvadori has made this observation in her 'We Came In Dhows', an account written after interacting with people in Gujarat.

Jeyapragasam Homage to a Historian: A Festschrift. Subrahmanian 60th Birthday Celebration Committee. Tide of Empires: — Archived from the original on 2 January The East in the West Repr.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Printed at the Government Central Press. Flynn Indian Merchants and Entrepreneurs in Historical Perspective.

Academic Foundation. Economic history of medieval India, — New Delhi: Pearson Education. In Weil, Shelve ed. Retrieved 28 July Historical atlas of Islam Rev.

New York [u. Daily News and Analysis. Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 4 October Eminent historian Manekshah Commissariat has quoted from this letter in his book 'A History of Gujarat: Mughal period, from to '.

Archived from the original on 7 August Retrieved 7 August Archived PDF from the original on 7 August The concept of tribal society.

Concept Publishing Company. The South Asian diaspora transnational networks and changing identities. London: Routledge.

Infectious Diseases: A Geographic Guide. Archived from the original on 3 September Retrieved 2 September Retrieved 6 February Muslims in Indian Cities: Trajectories of Marginalisation.

Columbia University Press. India Today. Archived from the original on 17 September Retrieved 22 November Pearson Education India. Business Standard India.

Retrieved 23 November The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 17 June New Delhi: Seminar Publications. Archived from the original on 22 March Retrieved 10 May Archived from the original on 1 November Retrieved 20 December The Hindu.

Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 16 May Archived from the original on 28 June Retrieved 26 July Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 16 March Archived from the original on 25 July Archived from the original on 18 December Census of India, Archived from the original on 25 August XXX Indian Videos.

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Apart from this, English, Bengali , Kannada , Malayalam , Marwari , Odia , Punjabi , Tamil , Telugu and others are spoken by a considerable number of economic migrants from other states of India seeking employment.

The languages taught in schools under the three-language formula are: []. Gujarat has 33 districts and Talukas. They can broadly be defined into 4 regions.

Gujarat is governed by a Legislative Assembly of members. Members of the Legislative Assembly are elected on the basis of adult suffrage from one of constituencies, of which 13 are reserved for scheduled castes and 27 for scheduled tribes.

The term of office for a member of the Legislative Assembly is five years. The Legislative Assembly elects a speaker who presides over the meetings of the legislature.

A governor is appointed by the President of India , and is to address the state legislature after every general election and the commencement of each year's first session of the Legislative Assembly.

The leader of the majority party or coalition in the legislature Chief Minister or his or her designee acts as the Leader of the Legislative Assembly.

The administration of the state is led by the Chief Minister. Congress continued to govern Gujarat after the state's creation in During and after India's State of Emergency of — , public support for the INC eroded, but it continued to hold government until with the brief rule of nine months by Janata Morcha.

His government lasted only two years. BJP again won election in with clear majority. In , following the loss of two assembly seats in by-elections, Keshubhai Patel resigned and yielded power to Narendra Modi.

During the British Raj, Gujarati businesses served to play a major role to enrich the economy of Karachi and Mumbai.

Industrial products include cement and petrol. The world's largest shipbreaking yard is in Gujarat near Bhavnagar at Alang. The state registered Gujarat records highest decadal agricultural growth rate of Legatum Institute's Global Prosperity Index has recognised Gujarat as one of the two highest-scoring among all states of India on matters of social capital.

In , Forbes list of the world's fastest growing cities included Ahmedabad at number 3 after Chengdu and Chongqing from China. Jamnagar is the hub for manufacturing brass parts.

It is one of India's most prosperous states, having a per-capita GDP significantly above India's average. Kalol , Khambhat , and Ankleshwar are today known for their oil and natural gas production.

Dhuvaran has a thermal power station, which uses coal, oil, and gas. Surat , a city by the Gulf of Khambhat , is a hub of the global diamond trade.

Gujarat is a state with surplus electricity. By , Gujarat plans on producing MW of energy by solar power. The total geographical area of Gujarat is 19,, hectares, of which crops take up 10,, hectares.

This success was lauded by former President of India, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam. The strengths of Gujarat's agricultural success have been attributed to diversified crops and cropping patters; climatic diversity 8 climatic zones for agriculture ; the existence of 4 agricultural universities in the state, which promote research in agricultural efficiency and sustainability; [] co-operatives; adoption of hi-tech agriculture such as tissue culture, green houses and shed-net houses; agriculture export zones; strong marketing infrastructure, which includes cold storage, processing units, logistic hubs and consultancy facilities.

Gujarat is the main producer of tobacco, cotton, and groundnuts in India. Other major food crops produced are rice, wheat, jowar, bajra , maize, tur , and gram.

The state has an agricultural economy; the total crop area amounts to more than one-half of the total land area. Animal husbandry and dairying have played vital roles in the rural economy of Gujarat.

Dairy farming, primarily concerned with milk production, functions on a co-operative basis and has more than a million members. Gujarat is the largest producer of milk in India.

The Amul milk co-operative federation is well known all over India, and it is Asia's biggest dairy. As per the results of livestock census , there were In the estimates of the survey of major livestock products, during the year —03, Gujarat produced 6.

Gujarat also contributes inputs to the textiles, oil, and soap industries, amongst others. The adoption of cooperatives in Gujarat is widely attributed to much of the success in the agricultural sector, particularly sugar and dairy cooperatives.

Cooperative farming has been a component of India's strategy for agricultural development since Whilst the success of these was mixed throughout the country, their positive impact on the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat have been the most significant.

In alone, the two states had more registered co-operatives than any other region in the country. Out of these, the agricultural cooperatives have received much attention.

Many have focused on subsidies and credit to farmers and rather than collective gathering, they have focused on facilitating collective processing and marketing of produce.

However, whilst they have led to increased productivity, their effect on equity in the region has been questioned, because membership in agricultural co-operatives has tended to favour landowners whilst limiting the entry of landless agricultural labourers.

Amul Was formed as a dairy cooperative in , [] in the city of Anand, Gujarat. GCMMF , is jointly owned by around 2. Amul has been seen as one of the best examples of cooperative achievement and success in a developing economy and the Amul pattern of growth has been taken as a model for rural development, particularly in the agricultural sector of developing economies.

The company stirred the White Revolution of India also known as Operation Flood , the world's biggest dairy development program, and made the milk-deficient nation of India the largest milk producer in the world, in As a result, Gujarat has faced problems with groundwater depletion, especially after demand for water went up in the s.

As access to electricity in rural areas increased, submersible electric pumps became more popular in the s and s.

However, the Gujarat Electricity Board switched to flat tariff rates linked to the horsepower of pumps, which increased tubewell irrigation again and decreased the use of electric pumps.

By the s, groundwater abstraction rates exceeded groundwater recharge rate in many districts, whilst only Groundwater maintenance and preventing unnecessary loss of the available water supplies is now an issue faced by the state.

However, its impact on communities who were displaced is still a contested issue. Recently, in , Gujarat began an experiment to reduce water loss due to evaporation in canals and to increase sustainability in the area by constructing solar panels over the canals.

One megawatt MW solar power project set up at Chandrasan, Gujarat uses solar panels fixed over a metre stretch of an irrigation canal.

Unlike many solar power projects, this one does not take up large amounts of land since the panels are constructed over the canals, and not on additional land.

This results in lower upfront costs since land does not need to be acquired, cleared or modified to set up the panels.

The Government of Gujarat, to improve soil management and introduce farmers to new technology, started on a project which involved giving every farmer a Soil Health Card.

This acts like a ration card, providing permanent identification for the status of cultivated land, as well as farmers' names, account numbers, survey numbers, soil fertility status and general fertiliser dose.

Assistance and advice for this project was given by local agricultural universities and crop and soil-specific data was added to the database.

This allows the soil test data to be interpreted and recommendations or adjustments made in terms of fertiliser requirements, which are also added to the database.

Gujarat is home for the Gujarati people. Gujarat was also the home of Mahatma Gandhi , a worldwide figure known for his non-violent struggle against British rule, and Vallabhbhai Patel , a founding father of the Republic of India.

Gujarati literature 's history may be traced to AD. Saraswatichandra is a landmark novel by Govardhanram Tripathi. A notable contribution to Gujarati language literature came from the Swaminarayan paramhanso, like Bramhanand, Premanand, with prose like Vachanamrut and poetry in the form of bhajans.

Gujarati theatre owes a lot to Bhavai. Bhavai is a folk musical performance of stage plays. Dayro gathering involves singing and conversation reflecting on human nature.

Gujarati food is primarily vegetarian. The typical Gujarati thali consists of rotli or bhakhari or thepala or rotlo , dal or kadhi , khichdi , Bhat and shak.

Athanu Indian pickle and chhundo are used as condiments. The four major regions of Gujarat all bring their own styles to Gujarati food.

Many Gujarati dishes are distinctively sweet, salty, and spicy at the same time. In Saurashtra region , chhash buttermilk is believed to be a must-have in their daily food.

The Gujarati film industry dates back to , when the first Gujarati film, Narsinh Mehta , was released. The industry is revived in recent times.

The film industry has produced more than one thousand films since its inception. Gujarati folk music, known as Sugam Sangeet , is a hereditary profession of the Barot , Gadhvi and Charan communities.

The omnipresent instruments in Gujarati folk music include wind instruments, such as turi , bungal , and pava , string instruments , such as the ravan hattho , ektaro , and jantar and percussion instruments, such as the manjira and zanz pot drum.

Garba during Navaratri in Ahmedabad. Navratri Garba at Ambaji temple. The folk traditions of Gujarat include bhavai and raas - garba. Bhavai is a folk theatre; it is partly entertainment and partly ritual, and is dedicated to Amba.

The raas-garba is a folk dance done as a celebration of Navratri by Gujarati people. The folk costume of this dance is chaniya choli for women and kedia for men.

Different styles and steps of garba include dodhiyu , simple five, simple seven, popatiyu , trikoniya hand movement which forms an imagery triangle , lehree , tran taali , butterfly, hudo , two claps and many more Sheri garba is one of the oldest form of garba where all the ladies wear red patola sari and sing along while dancing.

It is a very graceful form of garba. In Gujarat, from December through to Makar Sankranti , people start enjoying kite flying.

Undhiyu , a special dish made of various vegetables, is a must-have of Gujarati people on Makar Sankranti. Surat is especially well known for the strong string which is made by applying glass powder on the row thread to provide it a cutting edge.

Due to close proximity to the Arabian Sea, Gujarat has developed a mercantile ethos which maintained a cultural tradition of seafaring , long-distance trade, and overseas contacts with the outside world since ancient times, and the diffusion of culture through Gujarati diaspora was a logical outcome of such a tradition.

During the pre-modern period, various European sources have observed that these merchants formed diaspora communities outside of Gujarat, and in many parts of the world, such as the Persian Gulf , Middle East, Horn of Africa , Hong Kong, Indonesia , and Philippines.

This tradition was followed by other Gujaratis. Many Indians had migrated to Indonesia and the Philippines , most of them being Gujaratis.

King Aji Saka, who is said to have come to Java in Indonesia in year 1 of the Saka calendar, is believed by some to be a king of Gujarat.

In the early s, palaeontologists found dinosaur egg hatcheries and fossils of at least 13 species in Balasinor. The most important find was that of a carnivorous abelisaurid named Rajasurus narmadensis which lived in the Late Cretaceous period.

Gujarat has four national parks and 21 sanctuaries. It is the only home of Asiatic lions and outside Africa , is the only present natural habitat of lions.

Apart from lions, Indian leopards are also found in state. They are spread across the large plains of Saurashtra and the mountains of South Gujarat.

In February , a Bengal tiger claimed to be from Ratapani in Madhya Pradesh was spotted in the area of Lunavada in Mahisagar district , in the eastern part of the state, [] [] before being found dead later that month, likely from starvation.

Gujarat's natural environment includes the Great Rann of Kutch and the hills of Saputara , and it is the sole home of pure Asiatic lions in the world.

Many structures in the state are built in this fashion. Amitabh Bachchan is currently the brand ambassador of Gujarat Tourism.

The Kirti Mandir, Porbandar , Sabarmati Ashram , and Kaba Gandhi No Delo are museums related to Mahatma Gandhi , the former being the place of his birth and the latter two where he lived in his lifetime.

Kaba Gandhi No Delo in Rajkot exhibits part of a rare collection of photographs relating to the life of Mahatma Gandhi. Sabarmati Ashram is the place where Gandhi initiated the Dandi March.

On 12 March he vowed that he would not return to the Ashram until India won independence. The Calico Museum of Textiles is managed by the Sarabhai Foundation and is one of the most popular tourist spots in Ahmedabad.

The Lakhota Museum at Jamnagar is a palace transformed into museum, which was residence of the Jadeja Rajputs. The collection of the museum includes artefacts spanning from 9th to 18th centuries, pottery from medieval villages nearby and the skeleton of a whale.

In October , the world's tallest statue commemorating the independence leader Sardar Patel was unveiled. At metres tall the Statue of Unity is the newest tourist attraction with over visitors every day.

Religious sites play a major part in the tourism of Gujarat. Somnath is the first amongst twelve Jyotirlingas , and is mentioned in the Rigveda.

The Dwarakadheesh Temple and Dakor ji are holy pilgrimage sites with temples dedicated to Lord Krishna. The Palitana temples of Jainism on Mount Shatrunjaya , Palitana are considered the holiest of all pilgrimage places by the Svetambara and Digambara Jain community.

The Modhra Dance Festival is a festival for classical dance, arranged by the Government of Gujarat 's Cultural Department, to promote tourism in state and to keep traditions and culture alive.

The Ambaji Fair is held in the Hindu month of Bhadrapad around August—September at Ambaji, during a time which is particularly suitable for farmers, when the busy monsoon season is about to end.

The walk from the bus station to the temple is less than one kilometre, under a roofed walkway. The Bhadrapad fair is held in the centre of the Ambaji village just outside the temple premises.

The village is visited by the largest number of sanghas pilgrim groups during the fair. Many of them go there on foot, which is particularly enriching as it happens immediately after the monsoon, when the landscape is rich with greenery, streams are full of sparkling water and the air is fresh.

About 1. Not only Hindus, but some devout Jains and Parsis also attend the functions, whilst some Muslims attend the fair for trade.

The Tarnetar Fair is held during the first week of Bhadrapad , September—October according to Gregorian calendar , and mostly serves as a place to find a suitable bride for tribal people from Gujarat.

The region is believed to be the place where Arjuna took up the difficult task of piercing the eye of a fish, rotating at the end of a pole, by looking at its reflection in the pond water, to marry Draupadi.

The Government of Gujarat has banned alcohol since Somnath Temple , Veraval. Dwarkadhish Temple , Dwarka. Akshardham Gandhinagar.

Laxmi Vilas Palace , Vadodra. Vijay Vilas Palace , Mandvi , Kutch. Mahabat Maqbara , Junagadh. Vasai Jain Temple , Kutch. Mandvi Beach, Kutch.

Two more airports Ankleshwar , Rajkot are under construction. There are three disused airports situated at Deesa , Mandvi and Mehsana ; the last serving as a flying school.

Vadodara Railway Station is the busiest railway station in Gujarat and the fourth busiest railway station in India. Indian Railways is planning Delhi—Mumbai dedicated rail freight route passing through the state.

The It is expected to complete by December The construction started on 14 March Kandla Port is one of the largest ports serving Western India.

The state also has Ro-Ro ferry service. It is a public transport corporation providing bus services and public transit within Gujarat and to the other states in India.

Apart from this, the GSRTC provides special bus services for festivals, industrial zones, schools, colleges and pilgrim places also buses are given on contract basis to the public for certain special occasions.

Auto rickshaws are common mode of transport in Gujarat. The Government of Gujarat is promoting bicycles to reduce pollution by the way of initiative taken by free cycle rides for commuters..

Gujarat has 13 state universities and four agricultural universities. IRMA is a unique institution in the sense that it provides professional education to train managers for rural management.

It is the only one of its kind in all Asia. The National Institute of Design NID in Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar is internationally acclaimed as one of the foremost multi-disciplinary institutions in the field of design education and research.

In the emerging area of legal education, a premier institution Gujarat National Law University was founded in the capital city Gandhinagar which started imparting education from the year and is ranked in top institutions in the country.

Originally known as the Baroda College of Science established , it became a university in after the independence of the country and later renamed after its benefactor Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III, the former ruler of Baroda State.

Vikram Sarabhai , a renowned scientist, industrialist, and visionary Gujarati, played an important role in it. He also founded Physical Research Laboratory , a research institute encompasses Astrophysics, Solar System, and cosmic radiation.

He also envisioned Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad , one of the internationally reputed management research institute that is located in Gujarat's commercial capital Ahmedabad and is the top ranked management institutes in the country.

It was inaugurated by Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru , the first Prime Minister of India on 10 April , with a view to carry out research on marine salt, and salt from inland lakes and sub-soil brine.

It is working on reverse osmosis , electro membrane process, salt and marine chemicals, analytical science, marine biotechnology, and other related fields.

Gujarat Science City , [] is a government initiative to draw more students towards education in science, which hosts India's first IMAX 3D theatre, an energy park, a hall of science, an amphitheatre , and dancing musical fountains amongst others.

School of Business Management is ranked sixth in financial management. Shanti Business School in Ahmedabad is a business school offering post graduate diploma in management through corporate citizenship initiative.

ISR campus is at Raisan, Gandhinagar, in a sprawling and picturesque [ clarification needed ] area on the banks of Sabarmati river.

Aims and objectives include assigning optimum seismic factors for buildings in different regions and long-term assessment of potential. The ISR is the only institute in India fully dedicated to seismological research and is planned to be developed into a premier international institute in few years time.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. State in western India. This article is about the state in India. For the city in Pakistan, see Gujrat City.

For other uses, see Gujrat. State in India. Main article: History of Gujarat. Indus Valley Civilisation. Dholavira , one of the largest cities of Indus Valley Civilisation, with stepwell steps to reach the water level in artificially constructed reservoirs.

Archaeological remains of washroom drainage system at Lothal. It is one of the finest examples of stepwell architecture of Gujarat. Rani ki vav 11th century.

Taranga Jain Temple constructed by Kumarapala — The Mughal Emperor Akbar triumphantly enters Surat. Princely states of Gujarat in Gujarat in Bombay state.

Main article: Geography of Gujarat. See also: Climate of Gujarat and List of rivers of Gujarat. Physical map of Gujarat.

Sardar Sarovar Project , Gujarat, partially completed up to E. Main article: Rann of Kutch. Mount Karo, Kutch. White Rann of Kutch.

Cracked earth in the Rann of Kutch. Main article: Gujarati people. Islam 9. Jainism 0. Christianity 0. Sikhism 0. Buddhism 0. Others 0. Not stated 0.

Palitana temples. Hindi 6. Marathi 1. Kutchi 1. Others 5. See also: Chief Ministers of Gujarat. Largest cities or towns in Gujarat As of the Census.

Main article: Economy of Gujarat. This section may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards.

You can help. The talk page may contain suggestions. October Main article: Culture of Gujarat. Main article: Gujarati literature.

Main article: Gujarati cuisine. Main article: Gujarati cinema. Main article: Music of Gujarat. Main article: List of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries of Gujarat, India.

Main article: Tourism in Gujarat. Kirti Toran, Vadnagar. Jama Mosque, Champaner. Lakhota Museum in Jamnagar. Sun Temple, Modhera.

Wankaner palace, Wankaner. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport. Surat Airport. Main article: List of airports in Gujarat.

Main pages: Railway stations in Gujarat and Indian Railways. Bus terminal in Vadodara. Ahmedabad BRTS. Main article: Education in Gujarat.

See also: List of institutions of higher education in Gujarat. Notable people of Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Jamsetji Tata. Vikram Sarabhai. See also: List of people from Gujarat. India portal.

Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original PDF on 8 July Retrieved 6 November LIT Verlag Münster. Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 13 June Global Data Lab.

Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 25 September Planning Commission, Government of India.

Archived from the original PDF on 27 January Retrieved 3 October The Times of India. Archived from the original on 27 December Retrieved 14 July Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 12 November Nri Gujarati News.

Archived from the original on 1 December Archived from the original on 25 January Retrieved 24 January Ministry of Labour and Employment. Retrieved 3 May M Saraswathy 5 February Retrieved 4 March Pradeep Udhas.

Retrieved 4 July Tomar, Anita; Oza, Dr. Heena September Abhinav Publication. Retrieved 5 July Anthropological Survey of India.

Popular Prakashan. Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 21 January The State took its name from the Gujara, the land of the Gujjars , who ruled the area during the s and s.

Archived from the original on 19 October Retrieved 27 October Gujarat draws its name from the Gurjara supposedly a subtribe of the Huns , who ruled the area during the 8th and 9th centuries CE.

Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. Archived from the original PDF on 20 July Retrieved 18 November Archived from the original on 27 October Archived from the original on 26 May Retrieved 16 July Rao Archaeological Survey of India.

James, Tr. James, Oxford: Clarendon Press, Gujuras of Sindh. Circa AD Archived from the original on 11 August Retrieved 15 July Boulder, Colo.

Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 22 December Schoff , The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century digitalized , New York, archived from the original on 24 February , retrieved 1 October , As a sign of these places to those approaching from the sea there are serpents, very large and black; for at the other places on this coast and around Barygaza, they are smaller, and in color bright green, running into gold Now the whole country of India has very many rivers, and very great ebb and flow of the tides; increasing at the new moon, and at the full moon for three days, and falling off during the intervening days of the moon.

But about Barygaza it is much greater, so that the bottom is suddenly seen, and now parts of the dry land are sea, and now it is dry where ships were sailing just before; and the rivers, under the inrush of the flood tide, when the whole force of the sea is directed against them, are driven upwards more strongly against their natural current, for many stadia.

Retrieved 19 October The Syrian troops became increasingly reluctant to serve on the ill-omened Indian front, which seemed, after so many failures, to be well on its way to becoming the worst front.

Historical and cultural chronology of Gujarat, Volume 1. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Gajrani p. Al- Hind: The slave kings and the Islamic conquest.

Retrieved 17 May Asian Educational Services. Textile History. Handbuch der Orientalistik. Leiden: Brill.

Spencer Trimingham, John O. New York: Columbia University Press. Princeton University Press, Ahmedabad: From Royal city to Megacity.

Penguin UK, Retrieved 18 February Muslim education and learning in Gujarat, — Socio Religious Outlook of Abul Fazl.

Lahore Pakistan: Vanguard Books. The Ottoman Age of Exploration. Oxford University Press. Nevertheless, there were indeed people in India, specifically in Gujarat, who by about knew the Ottomans as the primary Ghazi sultans of western domains of the abode of Islam, and had tried to elevate their own standing by posing as comrade ghazis fighting irreligion in the east.

New Delhi: Northern Book Centre. Gujarati merchants had very long-standing relations with the Persian Gulf and Red Sea regions. Aden, Ormuz, and Mecca were frequently visited by them.

They took gold, quicksilver, vermilion, copper, rose-water, camlets, scarlet-in-grain, coloured woollen cloth, glass beads and weapons which were brought by merchants from Cairo to Aden.

The above mentioned items were collected by merchants from Italy, Greece, and Damascus. Horses from various parts of Arabia and Persia, especially from Ormuz, were brought by the Gujarati merchants to India.

The Cambridge History of the British Empire. CUP Archive. Retrieved 24 February The annual pilgrimages of Indian Muslim to Mecca, whose route lay through Gujarat which was called the Gate of Mecca had been for some years interrupted by the domination of the Arabian Sea by the Portuguese and also by the disorder prevailing in Gujarat.

The graves of Tarim genealogy and mobility across the Indian Ocean. Berkeley: University of California Press.

From the other direction, the enhanced security of the Hejaz provided not only profits for Gujarati merchants but succor for Gujarat's Muslim sultans.

In times of insecurity, Gujarati sultans would send their families and treasures to the Hejaz for safekeeping Archived from the original on 3 October Retrieved 30 September A Textbook of Medieval Indian History.

Primus Books. Stanford, Calif. Godinho estimated that Surat's population was more than , , with people from all over the world residing in the city or frequenting it for business.

Hinduism and modernity. Oxford: Blackwell. Surat was then the place of embarkation of pilgrims to Mecca; known as Bab al-Makkah or the Gate of Mecca, it was almost a sacred place for the Muslims of India.

More to the point it was the main city for foreign imports, where many merchants had their bases, and all the European trading companies were established.

Its population was more than , For a pious emperor, Surat had more than economic and political importance; it was the port from which the hajj pilgrimage ships left Mughal India for the Red Sea.

Princeton University Press. The adventures of Ibn Battuta, a Muslim traveler of the fourteenth century.

Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 1 October Historians have differed over the identity of the sailor, calling him a Christian, a Muslim and a Gujarati.

According to another account, he was the famous Arab navigator Ibn Majid. Some historians suggest Majid could not have been near the vicinity at the time.

German author Justus says it was Malam who accompanied Vasco Italian researcher Sinthia Salvadori too has concluded that it was Malam who showed Gama the way to India.

Salvadori has made this observation in her 'We Came In Dhows', an account written after interacting with people in Gujarat.

Jeyapragasam Homage to a Historian: A Festschrift. Subrahmanian 60th Birthday Celebration Committee.

Tide of Empires: — Archived from the original on 2 January The East in the West Repr. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Printed at the Government Central Press.

Flynn Indian Merchants and Entrepreneurs in Historical Perspective. Academic Foundation. Economic history of medieval India, — New Delhi: Pearson Education.

In Weil, Shelve ed. Retrieved 28 July Historical atlas of Islam Rev. New York [u. Daily News and Analysis. Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 4 October Full Indian Sex.

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चाची की जरुरत - Chaachi Ki Jarurat - New Hindi Movie 2019 The Katie morgan xxx mentioned items were collected by merchants from Italy, Greece, and Damascus. Retrieved 3 October Ranel Rander is a Elsa jean stepdaugher town of the Moorsbuilt of very pretty houses and squares. The ancient history of Gujarat was enriched by the commercial activities of its inhabitants. Location of Gujarat in India. Ministry of Minority Affairs. People enjoying Raan Utsav Mary_sexy DhordoKutch. By the s, groundwater abstraction rates exceeded groundwater recharge rate in many districts, whilst only

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